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O    Outline


O    Outline
Chapter 6
I AM A GOOD STUDENT Study Skills Program
By: Constance M. Messina, Ph.D.

PURPOSE

The OUTLINE section deals with the skills involved in outlining.


BACKGROUND

The skill of outlining will help students organize and remember what they hear or read. Outlining means to write information in order, from the most important to the least important. Main topics, subtopics and details are the important parts of an outline. The following rules will be helpful in making an outline.

 

1. An outline always has a title that tells you what the outline is about.

 

2. Use Roman numerals for each main topic. Write each main topic in the same way. Write in sentences or phrases, but capitalize the first word. A main topic is a very important idea and is comparable to the headings in textbooks.

 

3. Use a capital letter before each subtopic: A,B,C,etc. Indent subtopics under the main topics. Subtopics give more information about the main topic.

 

4. Use an Arabic numeral for each detail under subtopics: 1.2.3.etc. Indent details under subtopics. A detail is an extra piece of information that helps make the subtopic clearer.

 

5. Check your outline to make sure that your main ideas are arranged in a logical order.

 

6. Check your main topics to see that you have enough details or reasons to support your statement.

 

ACTIVITIES

1. Explain the terms and procedures of outlining. Post the terms and the outline form on the board for future reference.

 

2. Demonstrate the procedures with prepared paragraphs.

 

3. Practice outlining textbook chapters.

 

4. Give a lecture and have the students outline the information.

 

5. Story mapping can also lend itself to enhancing outlining skills.

 

6. For Kindergarten and First Grade students various categorizing skills are prerequisites for outlining skills.

Worksheet #1: Outline Form


Name:                                                            Date:


Title

  I. Main topic

     A. Subtopic

        1. Detail

           a. Sub-detail

              1) Additional details

                  a)

                    (1)

                         (a)

                         (b)

                    (2)

               b)

           2)

         b.

      2.

   B.

II. Roman Numerals

    A. Capital letters

         1. Arabic numerals

             a. Lowercase letters

                a) Lowercase letters with a semi-parenthesis

                   (1) Arabic numerals with a parenthesis

                       (a) Lowercase letters with a parenthesis

                       (b)

                 (2)

            b)

          b.

       2.

    B.

III.

Worksheet #2: Outlining


Name:                                                                      Date:


Outlining is another way to take notes. In this method, you may use a specific form. The form is easy to understand if you think of main topics and subtopics.

 

HOW TO OUTLINE

I.  Main Topics

Use Roman numerals to list the main topics. Below are Roman numerals for your review. 

I = 1  

II = 2  

III = 3  

IV = 4 

V = 5  

VI = 6

VII = 7

VIII = 8

IX = 9 

X =10

Write the Roman numeral for these numbers.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

II. Subtopics

Before you write the subtopics, indent and use a capital letter.

A SIMPLE OUTLINE LOOKS LIKE THIS

I.   The development of the helicopter

   A. Models made by many people

   B. Took a long time to be invented

II. The uses of the helicopter

   A..For sea rescue

   B. For airlifting patients

 

You try it. Make an outline about frying an egg.

I. Gathering my supplies

II. Cooking the egg

Worksheet #3: Subtopic and Detail

 

Name:                                                                    Date:

 

Details are sometimes added under the subtopics. These details are numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. You can make your outline as detailed as you like, but do not list subtopics or details unless you have at least two.

I.     MainTopic

       A. Subtopic

            1. Detail

            2. Detail

       B. Subtopic

            1. Detail

            2. Detail

You try it. From the list in the box, organize an outline about planting flowers. (Answer at end of this section.)

 

CHEMICAL              NATURAL           GETTING READY TO PLANT

MIX IN FERTILIZER        WATER DOWN SOIL        PREPARE SOIL

PICK OUT ROCKS             POSITION 6 INCHES APART

RAKE SMOOTH           PLANTING THE SEEDS

 

I. 

   A. 

      1. 

      2. 

   B. 

      1. 

      2. 

II. 

   A. 

   B

 

 

(Answer guide for this worksheet comes after worksheet  #8)

Worksheet #4: Complete the Outline

 

Name:                                                            Date:

 

DIRECTIONS: Read the article below. Fill in the missing parts of the outline.

 

The History of the Fork

For hundreds of years, people ate with their fingers. No one thought of eating with a fork. It wasn't until the eleventh century that a young lady from Turkey brought a fork to Italy. It took 400 years for the custom of eating with a fork to become popular there. Other travelers, especially the English, thought it was very funny. They kept their friends laughing telling stories of this Italian custom.

 

For the next 100 years, anyone in England who used a fork was laughed at. Men who used forks were called "sissies," and the women who used them were called "show-offs." It wasn't until the 1600's that the fork was used by most people.

 

 

I. Before the fork

   A. People ate

   B. Lady bought custom

II. In Italy

    A. Took 400 years

    B. Travelers 

III. In 

A. People

    1. Men

    2. 

B. 

Worksheet #5: Outlining of HORSES

 

Name:                                                                                        Date:

 

Now, read the following paragraphs. On the next worksheet, you will see how the information you read can be outlined.


HORSES

Horses are one of the most helpful animals to man. They are useful for traveling long distances. Horses are strong runners with long legs and hooves designed for running. Horses help people hunt for food, too. Horses have a good sense of smell. They also follow commands well. Many horses are good work animals, especially for farming. They have good memories and learn very quickly.

 

A horse's coat grows thick every winter. The horse sheds the extra hair every spring. The horse's coat comes in many colors. The horse's coat, mane, and tail make the animal beautiful and warm.

Worksheet #6: Outline of Horses


Name:                                                            Date:


How would you make an outline for Horses? Here is an example for you. The outline makes it easy to see the important information quickly.


I. Helpful to man

   A. Traveling long distances

        1. Strong runners

        2. Long legs

        3. Hooves for running

   B. Hunting for food

       1. Good sense of smell

       2. Follow commands well

C. Good workers

       1. Farming

       2. Good memories

       3. Learn quickly

II. How a horse looks

   A. Coat

        1. Thick in winter for warmth

        2. Sheds in spring for coolness

   B. Color

       1. Comes in many colors

       2. Coat, mane, tail color make it beautiful

Worksheet #7: Outline Three Meals a Day

 

Name:                                                Date:

 

Read the following paragraphs about meals. Complete the outline on the next worksheet. Be sure to ask your teacher or tutor for help, if you need it.

 

THREE MEALS A DAY

 

Eating is something most people do at least three times a day. The main meals are breakfast, lunch, and dinner. You choose certain kinds of foods for these meals.

Breakfast is the morning meal. The meal can include eggs, bacon, ham, cereal, bread, or fruit.

 

Lunch is the meal eaten halfway through the day. Many people like to eat foods such as soup, salad, and sandwiches.

 

The evening meal, dinner, is usually the largest meal of the day. People may eat a main dish of meat or fish. They may also have salads, vegetables, and rice or bread.

 

You can eat a light snack or a feast for any of these meals. The important things to remember are to eat healthful food, and not to eat too much!

Worksheet #8: Outline of Three Meals a Day

 

Name:                                                Date:

 

OUTLINE OF THREE TIMES A DAY

I. Three main meals

   A.

   B.

   C.

II. Special foods for each meal

   A.

      1.

      2.

      3.

      4.

      5.

      6.

  B.

     1.

     2.

     3.

  C.

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4. 

III. Watch what you eat

    A.

    B. 

Answer Key Worksheet # 3 

 

I. Getting Ready to Plant

    A. Prepare the Soil

         1. Picking out rocks

         2. Rake Smooth

    B. Mix in Fertilizer

         1. Chemical

         2. Natural

II. Planting the Seeds

    A. Position 6 inches apart

    B. Water down Soil