Helping you become all that you are capable of becoming!



Motivational Interviewing Scholarly References

Motivational Interviewing - A Training Resource
By Jim Messina

A Helping Truism:

How many helpers does it take to change a light bulb?

Just one, but the light bulb has to want to be changed.



Miller, W.R. & Rollnick, S. (2013). Motivational interviewing: Helping people change (Applications of motivational interviewing), 3rd edition. New York: Guilford Press.


Rollnick, S, Miller, W.R., & Butler, C.C. (2008). Motivational interviewing in Health Care: Helping Patients Change Behavior. New York: Guilford Press.

Rosengren, D.B. (2009). Building Motivational Interviewing Skills - A Practitioner Workbook.  New York: Guilford Press.

Research on Application of Motivational Interviewing 


Agerwala, S.M. & McCance-Katz, E.F. (2012). Integrating screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) into clinical practice settings: A brief review. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 44 (4), 307–317. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2012.720169


Alicock, M., Carr, C., Johnson, L., Smith, R., Lawrence, M., Daye, L., Gellin, M., & Manning, M. (2014). Implementing a one-on-one peer support program for cancer survivors using a motivational interviewing approach: Results and lessons learned. Journal of Cancer Education,29(1), 91-98. DOI 10.1007/s13187-013-0552-3


Amrhein, P.C., Miller, W.R., Yahne, C.E., Palmer, M., & Fulcher, L. (2003). Client commitment language during motivational interviewing predicts drug use outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(5), 862–878. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.71.5.862


Apodaca, T.R.  & Longabaugh, R. (2009). Mechanisms of change in motivational interviewing: A review and preliminary evaluation of the evidence. Addiction, 104, 705–715. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02527.x


Bagøien, T. Bjørngaard, J.H., Østensen, C., Reitan, S.K., Romundstad, P., & Morken, G. (2013). The effects of motivational interviewing on patients with comorbid substance use admitted to a psychiatric emergency unit - a randomized controlled trial with two-year follow-up. Bio-Med Central Psychiatry, 13, 93. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-93


Balán, I.C., Moyers, T.B., & Lewis-Fernández, R. (2013). Motivational pharmacotherapy: combining motivational interviewing and antidepressant therapy to improve treatment adherence. Psychiatry, 76(3), 203-209.


Barnes, R.D. & Ivezaj, V. (2015). A systematic review of motivational interviewing for weight loss among adults in primary care. Obesity Reviews, 16, 304–318. doi: 10.1111/obr.12264


Bean, M.K., Powell, P., Quinoy, A., Ingersoll, K., Wickham III, E.P., & Mazzeo, S.E. (2015). Motivational interviewing targeting diet and physical activity improves adherence to paediatric obesity treatment: Results from the MI Values randomized controlled trial. Pediatric Obesity, 10,118–125. Doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2014.226.x


Brody, A. (2009). Motivational interviewing with a depressed adolescent. Journal of Clinical Psychology, In Session, 65(11), 1168-1179. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.20636


Bundy, C. (2004). Changing behaviour: Using motivational interviewing techniques. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97(44), 43-47.


Dawson, A.M., Brown, D.A., Cox, A., Williams, S.M., Treacy, L., Haszard, J., Meredith-Jones, K., Hargreaves, E.  Taylor, B.J., Ross, J., & Taylor, R.W. (2014). Using motivational interviewing for weight feedback to parents of young children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50, 461–470. doi:10.1111/jpc.12518


Flynn, H.A. (2011). Setting the stage for the integration of motivational interviewing with cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of depression. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18, 46–54.


Friederichs, S.A.H., Oenema, A., Bolman, C., & Lechner, L. (2015). Long term effects of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in a web-based physical activity intervention: Randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity,12, 101. DOI 10.1186/s12966-015-0262-9


Frielink, N. & Embregts, P. (2013). Modification of motivational interviewing for use with people with mild intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 38(4), 279–291.


Giordano, A.L. & Cashwell, C.S. (2014). Entering the sacred: Using motivational Interviewing to Address Spirituality in Counseling. Counseling and Values, 59, 65-78. DOI: 10.1002/j.2161-007X.2014.00042.x


Gisore, P., Kaseje, D., Were, F., &   Ayuku, D. (2014). Motivational interviewing intervention on health-seeking behaviors of pregnant women in Western Kenya. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 19(2), 144–156.


Hamin, V. & McGuinness, T.M. (2013). Motivational interviewing: A tool for increasing psychotropic medication adherence for youth. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 51(6), 15-18. doi:10.3928/02793695-20130506-03


Hettema, J.E., Ernst, D., Williams, J.R., & Miller, K.J. (2014). Parallel processes: Using motivational interviewing as an implementation coaching strategy. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 41(3), 324-336. DOI 10.1007/s11414-013-9381-8


Hsich, M.Y., Ponsford, J., Wong, D., Michael Schonberger, M. Taffe, J., & Mckay, A. (2012). Motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety following traumatic brain injury: A pilot randomised controlled trial. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 22 (4), 585–608.


Ingersoll, K.S., Ceperich, S.D., Hettema, J.E., Farrell-Carnaham, L., & Penberthy, J.K. (2013). Preconceptional motivational interviewing interventions to reduce alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44(4), 407–416. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2012.10.001.


Karlsen, K., Humaidan, P., Sorensen, U.H., Alsbjerg, B., & Ravn, P. (2013). Motivational interviewing: A part of the weight loss program for overweight and obese women prior to fertility treatment. Gynecological Endocrinology, 29(9), 839-842. DOI: 10.3109/09513590.2013.808326


Kress, V.E. & Hoffman, R.M. (2008). Non-suicidal self-injury and motivational interviewing: Enhancing readiness for change. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 30(4), 311-329.


Larsen, M.H., Krogstad, A., Aas, E., Moum, T., & Wahl, S.K. (2014). A telephone-based motivational interviewing intervention has positive effects on psoriasis severity and self-management: A randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Dermatology, 171, 1458–1469. DOI 10.1111/bjd.13363


Larsen, M.H., Wahl, S.K., Krogstad, A., & Aas, E. (2016). Cost-utility analysis of supported self-management with motivational interviewing for patients with psoriasis. Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 96, 664-668. doi=10.2340/00015555-2331


Lavoie, K.L., Moullec, G., Lemiere, C., Blais, L., Labrecque, M., Beauchesne, M.F., Pepin, V., Cartier, A., & Bacon, S.L. (2014). Efficacy of brief motivational interviewing to improve adherence to inhaled corticosteroids among adult asthmatics: Results from a randomized controlled pilot feasibility trial. Patient Preference & Adherence, 8, 1555–1569.


Low, K.G., Giasson, H., Connors, S., Freeman, D., & Weiss, R. (2013). Testing the effectiveness of motivational interviewing as a weight reduction strategy for obese cardiac patients: A pilot study. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20(1).77-81. DOI 10.1007/s12529-011-9219-9


Madson, M.B., Mohn, R.S. Schumacher, J.A., & Landry, A.S. (2015). Measuring client experiences of motivational interviewing during a lifestyle intervention. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 48(2) 140-151. DOI: 10.1177/0748175614544687


Mallat, J. Morrow, S., & Stewart, P. (2010). Applying motivational interviewing principles in a modified interpersonal group for comorbid addiction. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 61(4), 556-575.


Markland, D., Ryan, R.M., Tobin, V.J., & Rollnick, S. (2005). Motivational interviewing and self-determination theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(6), 811-831.


Miller, W.R. & Rose, G.S. (2009). Toward a theory of motivational interviewing. American Psychologist, 64(6), 527–537. DOI: 10.1037/a0016830


Miller, W.R. & Rose, G.S. (2015). Motivational interviewing and decisional balance: Contrasting responses to client ambivalence. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 43, 129–141. doi:10.1017/S1352465813000878


Mirkarimi, S.K. & Kabir, M.J. (2015). Comparing the effect of motivational interviewing and standard nutrition education on promoting adherence to weight loss program in obese and overweight women: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (JMUMS), 25(124), 200-208


Moyers, T.B. & Rollnick, S. (2002). A motivational interviewing perspective on resistance in psychotherapy. JCLP/In Session: Psychotherapy in Practice, 58(2), 185–193.


Moyers, T.B., Martin, T., Houck, J.M., Christopher, P.J., & Tonigan, J.S. (2009). From in-session behaviors to drinking outcomes: A causal chain for motivational interviewing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(6), 1113–1124. DOI: 10.1037/a0017189


Naar-King, S. (2011). Motivational interviewing in adolescent treatment. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(11), 651-657.


O’Holloran, P.D., Blackstock, F., Shields, N., Holland, A., Iles, R. Kingsley, M., Bernhardt, J., Lannin, N., Morris, M.E., & Taylor, N.F. (2014). Motivational interviewing to increase physical activity in people with chronic health conditions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Rehabilitation, 28(12) 1159-1171. DOI: 10.1177/0269215514536210


Olsen, S. Smith, S.S., Oei, T.P.S., & Douglas, J.  (2012). Motivational interviewing (MINT) improves continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) acceptance and adherence: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(1), 151–163. DOI: 10.1037/a0026302


Ostlund, A.S., Kristofferzon, M.L. Häggström, E., & Wadensten, B. (2015). Primary care nurses’ performance in motivational interviewing: A quantitative descriptive study. Bio-Med Central Family Practice, 16, 89. DOI 10.1186/s12875-015-0304-z


Passmore, J. (2013). Motivational interviewing: Reflecting on ethical decisions in MI. The Coaching Psychologist, 9(2), 112-116.


Rohsenow, D.J., Martin, R.A., Monti, P.M., Colby, S.M., Day, A.M., Abrams, D.B., Sirota, A.D., &. Swift, R.M. (2015). Motivational interviewing versus brief advice for cigarette smokers in residential alcohol treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46(3), 346–355. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2013.10.002.


Seng, E.K. & Lovejoy, T.I. (2013). Reliability and validity of a treatment fidelity assessment for motivational interviewing targeting sexual risk behaviors in people living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 20, 440–448. DOI 10.1007/s10880-012-9343-y


Smeerdijk, M., Keet, R., Dekker, N., van Raaij,B.  Krikke, M. Koeter, M., de Haan, L., Barrowclough, C., Schippers, G., & Linszen, D. (2012). Motivational interviewing and interaction skills training for parents to change cannabis use in young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 42, 1627–1636. doi:10.1017/S0033291711002832


Smith, D.C., Lanesskog, D.,;Cleeland, L., Motl, R., Weikert, M., & Dlugonski, D.(2012). Motivational interviewing may improve exercise experience for people with multiple sclerosis: A small randomized trial. Health & Social Work, 37(2), 99-109. Doi:10.1093/hsw/hls011


Sorsdahl, K., Stein, D.J., Corrigall, J., Cuijpers, P., Smits, N., Naledi, T., & Myers, B. (2015). The efficacy of a blended motivational interviewing and problem solving therapy intervention to reduce substance use among patients presenting for emergency services in South Africa: A randomized controlled trial. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 10(46), 1-10. DOI 10.1186/s13011-015-0042-1


Oei, T.P.S., Raylu., & N. Casey, L.M. (2010). Effectiveness of group and individual formats of a combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral Treatment program for problem gambling: A randomized controlled trial. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38, 233–238. doi:10.1017/S1352465809990701


Wahab, S. (2005). Motivational interviewing and social work practice. Journal of Social Work, 5(1), 45-60. DOI: 10.1177/1468017305051365


Wahesh, E. (2016). Utilizing motivational interviewing to address resistant behaviors in clinical supervision. Counselor Education & Supervision, 55, 46-59. DOI: 10.1002/ceas.12032


Weineland, S.M., Gerhard Andersson, G., Lunner, T., Carlbring, P., Hesser, H. Ingo, E., Molander, P. Nordqvist, P., & Laplante-Lévesquea, A. (2015). Bridging the gap between hearing screening and successful rehabilitation: Research protocol of a randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing via internet. American Journal of Audiology, 24, 302–306. DOI: 10.1044/2015_AJA-15-0012


Williams, J.R. Blais, M.P., Banks, D., Dusablon, T., Williams, W.O., & Hennesy, K.D. (2014). Predictors of the decision to adopt motivational interviewing in community health settings. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 41(3), 294-307. DOI 10.1007/s11414-013-9357-8


Zeligman, M. & Robinson, E.H. (2014). Counselors’ role in HIV medication adherence: A motivational interviewing perspective. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 9, 232–244. DOI: 10.1080/15401383.2014.895471

Research on Training of Motivational Interviewing with Helpers


Can, D. Marin, R.A., Georgiou, P.G., Imel, A.E., Atkins, D.C., & Narayanan, S.S. (2016). “It sounds like . . .”: A natural language processing approach to detecting counselor reflections in motivational interviewing. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(3), 343–350.


Carpenter, K.M., Cheng, W.Y., Smith, J.L., Brooks, A.C., Amrhein, P.C., Waing, R.M., & Nunes, E.V. (2012). “Old dogs” and new skills: How clinician characteristics relate to motivational interviewing skills before, during, and after training.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(4), 560–573. doi:10.1037/a0028362.


Carr, E.S. & Smith, Y. (2014). The poetics of therapeutic practice: Motivational interviewing and the powers of pause. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 38,83–114. DOI 10.1007/s11013-013-9352-9


Decker, S.E. & Martino, S. (2013). Unintended effects of training on clinicians' interest, confidence, and commitment in using motivational interviewing. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. 132(3), 681–687. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.04.022


Giordano, A., Clarke, P., & Borders, L.D. (2013). Using motivational interviewing techniques to address parallel process in supervision. Counselor Education & Supervision, 52, 15-29. DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6978.2013.00025.x


Lindhardt, L., Rubak, S., Morgensen, O., Hansen, H.P., Lamont R.F., & Jorgensen, J.S. (2014).  Training in motivational interviewing in obstetrics: A quantitative analytical tool.  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 93, 698–704. DOI: 10.1111/aogs.12401


Lusilla-Palacios, P. & Castellano-Tejedor, C. (2015). Training a spinal cord injury rehabilitation team in motivational interviewing. Rehabilitation Research and Practice, 2015, 1-7.


Martino, S., Canning-Ball, M., Carroll, K.M., & Rounsaville, B.J. (2011). A criterion-based stepwise approach for training counselors in motivational interviewing. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 40(4), 357–365. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2010.12.004.


Martino, S., Zimbrean, P., Forray, A., Kaufman, J., Desan, P, Olmstead, T.A., Gueorguieva, R., Howell, H., McCaherty, A., & Yonkers, K.A. (2015). See One, Do One, Order One: a study protocol for cluster randomized controlled trial testing three strategies for implementing motivational interviewing on medical inpatient units. Implementation Science, 10,138. DOI 10.1186/s13012-015-0327-9


Miller, W.R. & Moyers, T.B. (2006). Eight stages in learning motivational Interviewing. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 5(1), 3-17.  doi:10.1300/J188v05n01_02


Mullin, D.J., Forsburg, L., Savageau, J.A., & Saver, B. (2015). Challenges in developing primary care physicians’ motivational interviewing skills. Families, Systems, & Health, 35(4), 330–338.


Schumacher, J.A., Madison, M.B., & Nilsen, P. (2014). Barriers to learning motivational

interviewing: A survey of motivational interviewing trainers’ perceptions. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 35, 81-96. DOI: 10.1002/j.2161-1874.2014.00028.x


Schwalbe, C.S., Oh, H.Y., & Zweben, A. (2014). Sustaining motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis of training studies. Addiction, 109, 1287–1294. doi:10.1111/add.12558


Shemtaub, L. (2016). Should motivational interviewing training be mandatory for medical students? Medical Education Online, 21.


Smith, J.L., Carpenter, K.M., Amrhein, P.C., Brooks, A.C., Levin, D., Schreiber, E.A., Travaglini, L.A., Hu, M.C., & Nunes, E.V. (2012). Training substance abuse clinicians in motivational interviewing using live Supervision via tele-conferencing. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 80(3), 450–464. doi:10.1037/a0028176.


van Wormer, K. (2007). Principles of motivational interviewing geared to stages of change: A pedagogical challenge. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 27(1/2). 21-35. doi:10.1300/J067v27n01_02