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References on Suicide

Intervention & Prevention

Suicide Intervention and Prevention Strategies - 

A Training Resource

By: Jim Messina



American Association of Suicidology (2012). Risk Factors for Suicide and Suicidal Behaviors. American Association of Suicidology, Washington DC. Retrieved from: Retrieved from:


Asarnow, J.R., Berk, M., Hughes, J.L. & Anderson, N.L. (2015). The SAFETY program: A treatment-development trial of a cognitive-behavioral family treatment for adolescent

suicide attempters. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(1), 194–203. DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2014.940624


Asarnow, J.R. & Miranda, J. (2015). Improving care for depression & suicide risk in adolescents. Innovative strategies for bringing treatment to community settings. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 275-303. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153742.


Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Brennan, K., Duggan, D.S., Crane, R.S., Eames, C., Radford, S., Silverton, S., Fennell, M.J.V. & Williams, M.G. (2015). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) reduces the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions in patients with a history of suicidal depression. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 83(6), 1013-1020.


Beck, A. T., Schuyler, D., & Herman, I. (1974). Development of suicidal intent scales. In A. T. Beck, H. Resnik, & D. J. Lettieri (Eds.), The prediction of suicide. Bowie, MD: Charles Press.


Beck, A.T., & Steer, R.A. (1991). Manual for the Beck scale for suicide ideation. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.


Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42(6), 861-865.


Brenner, L.A., Breshears, R.E., Betthauser, L.M., Bellon, K.K., Holman, E., Harwood, J.E.F., et al. (2011). Implementation of a suicide nomenclature within two VA healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 18(2), 116-128.


Brenner, L.A., Gutierrez, P.M., Cornette, M.M., Betthauser, L.M., Bahraini, N., and Staves, P.J. (2008). A qualitative study of potential suicide risk factors in returning combat veterans. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 30 (3), 211- 225.


Brenner, L.A., Ignacio, R.V. Y Blow, F.C. (2011). Suicide and traumatic brain injury among individuals seeking Veterans Health Administration services. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26 (4), 257- 264.


Brenner, L.A., Homaifar, B.Y., Adler, L.E., Wolfman, J.H., & Kemp, J. (2009). Suicidality and veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury: Precipitating events, protective

factors, and prevention strategies. Rehabilitation Psychology, 54 (4), 390- 397.


Britton, P. C., Bryan, C. J., & Valenstein, M. (2016). Motivational Interviewing for Means

Restriction Counseling with Patients at Risk for Suicide. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23, 51-61.


Brown, G. K., Ten Have, T., Henriques, G. R., Xie, S. X., Hollander, J. E., & Beck, A. T. (2005). Cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(5), 563-570.


Bryan, C.J. (Ed). (2015). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Preventing Suicide Attempts: A Guide to Brief Treatments Across Clinical Settings (Clinical Topics in Psychology and Psychiatry). New York: Rutledge


Bryan, C.J., Kanzler, K.E., Durham, T.L., West, C.L., Greene, E. (2010). Challenges and considerations for managing suicide risk in combat zones. Military Medicine, 175 (10), 713- 718.


Bryan, C.J., McNaughton-Cassill, M., & Osman, A. (2013). Age and belongingness moderate the effects of combat exposure on suicidal ideation among active duty Air Force personnel. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 1226–1229.


Bryan, C. J., Stone, S. L., & Rudd, D. M. (2011). A practical, evidence-based approach for means restriction counseling with suicidal patients. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 42(5), 339-346.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Detailed tables for the National Vital Statistics Report (NVSR) “Deaths: Final Data for 2013.” Retrieved from:


Cooper, W.O., Callahan, S.T., Shintania, A., Fuchs, C., Shelton, R.C., Dudley, J.A., Graves, A.J. & Ray, W.A. (2014). Antidepressants and suicide attempts in children. PEDIATRICS, 133(2), 204-210. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-0923


Cox, D. W., Ghahramanlou-Holloway, M., Greene, F., Bakalar, J., Schendel, C., Nademin, M. E., Jobes, D. A., Englert, D. R., & Kindt, M. (2011). Suicide in the United States Air Force: Risk factors communicated before and at death. Journal of Affective Disorders, 133, 398-405. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.05.011.


Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense (2010). Management of Bipolar disorder in adults (BD) - Retrieved from


Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense (2010). Management of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Reaction (PTSD) - Retrieved from


Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense (2013). VA/DOD Clinical practice guideline for assessment and management of patients at risk for suicide: Guideline summary. Retrieved from


Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense (2015). Management of Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Retrieved from


Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense (2016). Management of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Retrieved from

Fassberg, M.M., Cheung, G., Canettor, S.S., Erlangsen, A., Lapierre, S., Lindner, R., Draper, B., Gallo, J.J., Wong, C., Wu, J., Duberstein, P. & Waern (2016). A systematic review of physical illness, functional disability, and suicidal behavior among older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 20(2), 166-194.


Fishbain, D.A., Bruns, D., Disorbio, J.M. & Lewis, J.E. (2009). Risk for five forms of suicidality in acute pain patients and chronic pain patients vs pain-free community controls. Pain Medicine, 10 (6), 1095- 1105.


Freeman, T., Clothier, J., Thornton, C., & Keesee, N. (1994). Firearm collection and use among combat veterans admitted to a posttraumatic stress disorder rehabilitation unit. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182(10), 592-593


Gutierrez, P.M., Brenner, L.A., & Huggins, J.A. (2008). A preliminary investigation of suicidality in psychiatrically hospitalized veterans with traumatic brain injury. Archives of Suicide Research, 12, 336- 343.


Haas, A.P., Eliason, M., Mays, V.M., Mathy, R.M, Cochran, S.D. D’Augelli, A.R. et al. (2011) Suicide and suicide risk in Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: Review and recommendations. Journal of Homosexuality, 58,10–51. DOI: 10.1080/00918369.2011.534038


Henriques, G., Beck, A. T., & Brown, G. K. (2003). Cognitive therapy for adolescent and young adult suicide attempters. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(9), 1258-1268.


Ilgen, M.A., Czyz, E.K., Welsh, D.E., Zeber, J.E., Bauer, M.S., & Kilbourne, A.M. (2009). A collaborative therapeutic relationship and risk of suicidal ideation in patients with

bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 115, 246–251.


Ilgen, M.A., McCarthy, J.F., Ignacio, R.V., Bohnert, A.S.B., Valenstein, M., Blow, F.C., and Katz, I.R. (2012). Psychopathology, Iraq and Afghanistan service, and suicide among Veterans Health Administration patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80 (3), 323-330.


Ilgen, M.A., Zivin, K., McCammon, R.J., and Valenstein, M. (2008). Pain and suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts in the United States. General Hospital Psychiatry, 30 (6), 521- 527.


Jakupcak, M., Vannoy, S., Imel, Z., Cook, J.W., Fontana, A., Rosenheck, R., and McFall, M. (2010). Does PTSD moderate the relationship between social support and suicide risk in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans seeking mental health treatment? Depression and Anxiety, 27, 1001- 1005.


Joiner, T. (2010). Myths about suicide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Joiner, T. (2005). Why people die by suicide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Kaplan, M.S., McFarland, B.H., Huguet, N., Valenstein, M. (2012). Suicide risk and precipitating circumstances among young, middle-aged, and older male veterans. American Journal of Public Health, 102(Suppl 1), S131-S137. doi:  10.2105/AJPH.2011.300445


Kennard, B.D., Biernesser, C., Wolfe, K.L., Foxwell, A.A., Lee, S.J.C., Rial, K.V., Patel, S., Cheng, C., Goldsteing, T., McMakin, D., Blastos, B. Douahy, A., Zelazny, J. & Brent, D.A. (2016). Developing a brief suicide prevention intervention and mobile phone application: A qualitative report. Journal of Technological Human Services, 33(4), 345-357. doi:10.1080/15228835.2015.1106384.


Khazem, L. R., Houtsma, C., Gratz, K. L., Tull, M. T, Green, B. A., & Anestis, M. D. (2016). Firearms Matter: The moderating role of firearm storage in the association between current suicidal ideation and likelihood of future suicide attempts among United States military personnel. Military Psychology, 28(1), 25-33.


King, C.A., Eisenberg, D., Zheng, K., Czyz, E., Kramer, A., Horwitz, A. & Chermack, S. (2015). Online suicide risk screening and intervention with college students: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 83(3), 630–636.


Lum, H.D., Flaten,H.K.,& Betz, M.E. (2016). Gun access and safety practices among older adults. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 2016,

Manthorpe, J. & Iliffe, S. (2010). Suicide in later life: Public health and practitioner perspectives. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25, 1230-1238. DOI: 10.1002/gps.2473


Martin, J., Ghahramanlou-Holloway, M., Lou, K., Tucciarone, P. (2009). A comparative review of U.S. military and implications for OEF/OIF suicide prevention efforts. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 31(2), 101-118.


Nash, W.P., Silva, C., & Litz, B. (2009). The historic origins of military and veteran mental health stigma and the stress injury model as a means to reduce it. Psychiatric Annals 39:8, 789-794. doi: 10.3928/00485713-20090728-05


O’Brien, K.H.M., Singer, J.B., LeCloux, M., Duarte-Velez, Y. & Spirito, A. (2015). Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 9(3), 19-23.


Posner, K., Brown, G.K., Stanley, B., Brent, D.A., Yershova, K.V., Oquendo, M.A., Currier, G.W., Melvin, G., Greenhill, L., Shen, S., & Mann, J.J., (2011). The Columbia-Suicide Severity Scale rating scale: Initial validity and internal consistency findings from three multisitestudies with adolescents and adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 1266-1277. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.10111704.


Ribeiro J. D., Pease J. L., Gutierrez P. M., Silva, C., Bernert, R. A., Rudd, M. D., & Joiner, T. E. (2012). Sleep problems outperform depression and hopelessness as cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior in young adults in the military. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(3), 743-50.


Richard, Y.F., Swaine, B.R., Sylvestre, M.P., Lesage, A., Zhang, X. & Feldman, D.E. (2015). The association between traumatic brain injury and suicide: Are kids at risk? American Journal of Epidemiology, 182(2):177–184. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwv014


Rudd, M.D. (2006). Fluid vulnerability theory: A cognitive approach to understanding the

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Rudd, M.D., Berman, A.L., Joiner, T.E., Nock, M.K., Silverman, M.M., Mandrusiak, M., Van Orden, K., & Witte, T. (2006). Warning signs for suicide: Theory, research, and clinical applications. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 36(3), 255-262.


Rudd, D.M., Bryan, C.J., Wertenberger, E.G., Peterson, A.L., Young-McCaughan, S., Mintz, J., Williams, S.R., Arne, K.A., Breitbach, J., Delando, K., Wilkinson, E. & Bruce, T.O. (2015). Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy effects on post-treatment suicide attempts in a military sample: results of a randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 441-449.


Rudd, M. D., Joiner, T., Rajab, M. H. (1996). Relationships among suicide ideators, attempters, and multiple attempters in a young-adult sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 541-550.


Runyan, C.W., Becker, A., Brandspigel, S., Barber,C., Trudeau, A. & Novins, D. (2016). Lethal means counseling for parents of youth seeking emergency care for suicidality. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, XVII(1), 8-14.

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Schneider, A.L., Hostetter, T.A., Hornalfar, B.Y., Forster, J.E., Olson-Madden, J.H., Matarazzo, B.B., Huggins, J. & Brenner, L.A. (2016). Responses to traumatic brain injury screening questions and suicide attempts among those seeking Veterans Health Administration mental health services. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7, 59. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00059


Spirito, A., Wolff, J.C., Seaboyer, L.M., Hunt, J., Esposito-Smythers, C., Nugent, N., Zlotnick, C. & Miller, I. (2015). Concurrent treatment for adolescent and parent depressed mood and suicidality: Feasibility, acceptability and preliminary findings. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 25(2), 131-139. DOI: 10.1089/cap.2013.0130


Stanley, B., Brown, G., Brent, D., Wells, K., Poling, K., Curry, J., Kennard, B.D., Wagner, A., Cwik, M., Klomek, A.B., Goldstein, T., Vitiello, B., Barnett, S., Daniel, S. & Hughes, J. (2009). Cognitive behavior therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment model, feasibility and acceptability. Journal of the American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(10), 1005-1013. doi:10.1097/CHI.



Villate, J.L., O’Connor, S.S., Leitner, R.L., Kerbrat, A.H., Johnson, L.L. & Gutierrez. (2016). Suicide attempt characteristics among veterans and active-duty service members receiving mental health services: A pooled data analysis. Military Behavioral Medicine, 3(4). 316-327. doi:10.1080/21635781.2015.1093981.


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Zivin, K., Kim, H.M., McCarthy, J.F., Austin, K.L., Hoggatt, K.J., Walters, H., & Valenstein M. (2007). Suicide mortality among individuals receiving treatment for depression in the Veterans Affairs health system: Associations with patient and treatment setting characteristics. American Journal of Public Health, 97(12), 2193-2198.